ISSN 2520-2073 | 2521-442X

AUTHOR GUIDELINES

Before you proceed to submit your paper, please make sure it meets our requirements. The complete description of TLC submission requirements is offered in TLC Submission Guidelines available for download. We also encourage authors to download the paper template containing detailed information on style and formatting with comments.

General Regulations

Training, Language and Culture invites authors to submit manuscripts that have not been published before and are not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Submissions are accepted in English only. Submitted manuscripts must comply with the general academic requirements, fall within the aims and scope of the journal, present original research, and appeal to a wide range of specialists within the scientific community. If previously published figures, tables or parts of text are to be included, the copyright holder’s permission is to be obtained prior to submission. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.


Publication Efficiency

Please read and follow these instructions carefully. Doing so will ensure that the publication of your manuscript is as rapid and efficient as possible. The publisher reserves the right to return manuscripts that are not prepared in accordance with these instructions.


Submission Procedure

Manuscripts are submitted electronically via the TLC Online Submission System. Before submitting the manuscript, authors make sure it is prepared in accordance with the TLC Submission Guidelines. In the submission process, authors are required to indicate their full names, affiliations, full academic titles and degrees, email addresses, and research databases IDs. Authors are also required to sign the Publication Consent form, provide a short bio note to disclose their professional background and research history, and identify any organisations, projects or other agencies supporting their publication.


Manuscript Length, Font and Metadata

Training, Language and Culture accepts manuscripts prepared in a MS Word file (.docx) and following the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.) with presentation in Optima 11 pt, single spacing. Article length should be no less than 6000 words, including all parts and sections. For book reviews – within 1500-2000 words. Authors are requested to consult this Paper Template as a general structure and formatting reference. Please note that author details revealing their identity are only provided in the submission process, and the manuscript file should contain no such details to ensure unhindered double-blind peer review procedure. To facilitate this, authors need to ensure that their manuscripts are prepared in a way that does not give away their identity. In this vein, no author details should be indicated in both the text and the document metadata.


Author Anonymity

To ensure author anonymity, contributors are required to remove names and affiliations from the text of the manuscript, remove references to funding sources, remove acknowledgments, cite their own papers as (Author, 2007), and make sure that document properties are properly anonymised.


Language

Training, Language and Culture publishes articles in English only. Only British spelling should be used consistently throughout the text. Abbreviations should be defined at their first mention and used consistently. Please avoid including abbreviations in the title. Scientific reporting should convey the essential points of the study in a clear manner and must be free of implied or irrelevant evaluation of the group or groups being studied.


Manuscript Structure

The manuscript should be divided into clearly defined sections.

  • TITLE full-justified, bold type, no abbreviations, capitalisation of the first word only.
  • ABSTRACT full-justified, italicised, 1500 to 2000 characters.
  • KEYWORDS full-justified, italicised, 5 to 7 items separated by a comma.
  • MAIN TEXT full-justified, 0.5 cm indent, a single space before numbered paragraphs.
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS optional, full-justified.
  • FUNDING optional, full-justified.
  • APPENDIX optional, 9pt, full-justified.
  • REFERENCES APA style strictly.

Main Text Structure

The main text should be divided into clearly defined paragraphs.

  • INTRODUCTION stating the relevance of the study, its aim, subject matter, and other research premises.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS highlighting the material and stating the methods of analysis from the angle of their expedience for the particular topic.
  • THEORETICAL BACKGROUND reviewing previous research with the focus on disputable and undeveloped issues.
  • STUDY AND RESULTS describing research procedure and results with the focus on new findings.
  • DISCUSSION estimating the significance of study results, the prospects for their practical implementation and further research on the topic.
  • CONCLUSION briefly summing up what has been analysed and the conclusions the authors have come to.

Paragraph Levels

Paragraph levels should be as follows:

Level 1 - 1. ALL CAPITALISED, BOLD

Level 2 - 1.1. Lowercase, bold

Level 3 - 1.1.1. Lowercase, bold & italicised


Some General Formatting Rules

  • Use single quotes throughout the text.
  • If you refer to the title of a source within your paper, capitalise all words within the title of a source: Permanence and Change. Exceptions apply to non-notional parts of speech: Writing New Media: There is Nothing Left to Lose.
  • When capitalising titles, capitalise both words in a hyphenated compound word: Natural-Born Cyborgs.
  • In the References section and the title of your manuscript capitalise the first word after a dash or colon: Defining film rhetoric: The case of recent motion pictures.
  • Italicise the titles of books, edited collections, movies, television series, documentaries, or albums.
  • A page or a page range should at all times be provided for word-for-word citations.
  • Table grids should show horizontal lines only.
  • Display table legends before the tables and figure captions immediately following the figures.
  • To maximize clarity, use abbreviations sparingly.
  • Periods are not used with abbreviations in APA Style (e.g., write “FBI” and “PhD” not “F.B.I.” and “Ph.D.”).
  • Use “they” as a generic third-person singular pronoun to refer to a person whose gender is unknown or irrelevant to the context of the usage. Do not use “he” or “she” alone as generic third-person singular pronouns.
  • Include a DOI for all works that have a DOI, regardless of whether you used the online or the print version.
  • Do not use bullets for smaller lists containing only a few items.

Quotation Marks

Training, Language and Culture uses single quotation marks only. Use quotation marks the first time the word or phrase is used; thereafter, do not use quotation marks. Do not use quotation marks:

  • to identify the anchors of a scale; instead, italicise them. E.g.: We ranked the items on a scale ranging from 1 (all of the time) to 5 (never).
  • to cite a letter, word, phrase, or sentence as a linguistic example; instead, italicise the term. E.g.: He clarified the distinction between farther and further.
  • to introduce a technical or key term; instead, italicise the term. E.g.: The term zero-base budgeting appeared frequently in the speech. She compared it with meta-analysis, which is described in the next section.

In-Text Citations

Training, Language and Culture follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.) for citations and references. When using APA format, follow the author(s)-year-page method for in-text citations as in these examples:

  • (Jones, 2019, p. 13) for a single author
  • (Jones & Smith, 2019, p. 13) for two authors
  • (Jones et al., 2019, p. 13) for three or more authors

A complete reference for the citation should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper. When referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference. All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper. When mentioning referenced material within the text, please follow these rules:

  • As Jones (2019) argues... for a single author
  • As Jones and Smith (2019) argue... for two authors
  • As Jones et al. (2019) argue... for three or more authors

Longer quotes referring to a more or less sustainable definition/interpretation taken from a referenced source should be italicised. E.g.: Manipulation of recipient’s consciousness is only plausible given there is a subject and an object of manipulation, whereby it can be defined as ‘action directed at someone or something in order to achieve or instil something’ (Adair, 2003, p. 81). Hence, a speech strategy is basically ‘a complex of speech actions aimed at achieving communicative goals’ (Issers, 2002, p. 122).


References

Following the APA Publication Manual (7th ed.), references should be formatted as follows.

BOOK

Halliday, M. A. K., & Matthiessen, C. (2004). An introduction to functional grammar (3rd ed.). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203783771

JOURNAL ARTICLE WITH PAGE RANGE

Malyuga, E. N., & Tomalin, B. (2017). Communicative strategies and tactics of speech manipulation in intercultural business discourse. Training, Language and Culture, 1(1), 28-45. https://doi.org/10.29366/2017tlc.1.1.2

JOURNAL ARTICLE WITH ARTICLE NUMBER

Baena-Extremera, A., Granero-Gallegos, A., Baños, R., & Ortiz-Camacho, M. D. M. (2018). Can physical education contribute to learning English? Structural model from self-determination theory. Sustainability, 10(10), Article 3613. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su10103613

JOURNAL ARTICLE WITH MORE THAN SEVEN AUTHORS

Dikker, S., Wan, L., Davidesco, I., Kaggen, L., Oostrik, M., McClintock, J., ... & Poeppel, D. (2017). Brain-to-brain synchrony tracks real-world dynamic group interactions in the classroom. Current Biology, 27(9), 1375-1380. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2017.04.002

NEWSPAPER ARTICLE

Carey, B. (2019, March 22). Can we get better at forgetting? The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/22/health/memory-forgetting-psychology.html

CHAPTER IN AN EDITED BOOK: SINGLE EDITOR

Chen, X., Hao, P., Chandramouli, R., & Subbalakshmi, K. P. (2011). Authorship similarity detection from email messages. In P. Perner (Ed.), Machine learning and data mining in pattern recognition (pp. 375-386). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-23199-5_28

CHAPTER IN AN EDITED BOOK: TWO EDITORS

Fitzmaurice, S. M. (2016). Semantic and pragmatic change. In M. Kytö & P. Pahta (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of English historical linguistics (pp. 256-270). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139600231.016

CHAPTER IN AN EDITED BOOK: THREE OR MORE EDITORS

Gollin-Kies, S., Hall, D. R., & Moore, S. H. (2015). Historical and conceptual overview of LSP. In S. Gollin-Kies, D. R. Hall, & S. H. Moore (Eds.), Language for specific purposes (pp. 11-28). Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137500762_2

CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS

Vázquez, C., Xia, L., Aikawa, T., & Maes, P. (2018, July 9-13). Words in motion: Kinesthetic language learning in virtual reality. In Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (pp. 272-276). IEEE. https://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICALT.2018.00069

DISSERTATIONS

Dubossarsky, H. (2018). Semantic change at large [Doctoral dissertation, Hebrew University of Jerusalem]. Hebrew University of Jerusalem Archive. https://www.cs.huji.ac.il/~daphna/theses/Haim_Dubossarsky_2018.pdf

ONLINE ENTRY

Aslan, E. (2018, February 12). The surprising academic origins of memes. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/the-surprising-academic-origins-of-memes-90607

DICTIONARY ENTRY

Longman Dictionary. (2021). Developing country. Longman Online Dictionary of Contemporary English. https://www.ldoceon-line.com/dictionary/developing-country

NON-ENGLISH SOURCES

Kompara Lukančič, M. (2020). Nozioni di base della lingua italiana per il settore del turismo (2nd ed.). University of Maribor Press. (In Italian)

Wüster, E. (1970). Internationale Sprachnormung in der Technik besonders in der Eletrotechnik. Bouvier. (In German)

Kosenko, M. A. (2013). Sistema veroyatnostnogo prognozirovaniya teksta v spetsial’nom perevode. Uchenye Zapiski RGSU, 3(115), 137-145. (In Russian)

YOUTUBE VIDEO REFERENCE

CampaignTVAds. (2015, December 10). Ben Carson 2016 [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/pmCx6A9_sdE

For other reference examples please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). Authors are also encouraged to consult this Paper Template as a general structure and formatting reference.


Tables and Figures

Tables and figures are placed within the text of the article rather than at the end. Number all tables and figures with Arabic numerals in the order in which they are first mentioned in text, regardless of whether a more detailed discussion of the table or figure occurs later in the paper. Do not use suffix letters to number tables and figures, i.e. label them as Table 5, Table 6, and Table 7 or Figure 5, Figure 6, and Figure 7 instead of 5, 5a, and 5b. Table layout should be logical and easily grasped by the reader. Table entries that are to be compared should be next to one another. Following this principle, in general, different indices (e.g. names, standard deviations, sample sizes) should be segregated into different parts or lines of tables. Position variable and condition labels in close proximity to the values of the variable to facilitate comparison. Table grids should show horizontal lines only. Many types of figures can be used to present data to the reader, including graphs, charts, maps, drawings, and photographs. The standards for good figures are simplicity, clarity, continuity, and (of course) information value. A good figure︎ augments rather than duplicates the text,︎ conveys only essential facts,︎ omits visually distracting detail, is easy to read (i.e. its elements such as type, lines, labels, symbols, etc. are large enough to be read with ease), is easy to understand (its purpose is readily apparent), is consistent with and in the same style as similar figures in the same article, and is carefully planned and prepared. For graphic examples please consult TLC Submission Guidelines and this Paper Template.


Book Review Guidelines

A book review should present an objective critical assessment of the books revealing their merits and/or drawbacks in terms of their contribution to the relevant field of science within the range of the journal focus areas. Book reviews should follow the same format and style requirements as articles, the length being 1,500 to 2,000 words. The review should introduce the reader to the book's content and focus on the subject of the book being reviewed. Reviewers need to include an exposition of how the book fits into the current thinking on the subject (e.g., a novel approach, an introduction, a magisterial review, the finest book on the subject ever written, etc.) and avoid repeating its table of contents; rather, give the reader some idea of the author’s thesis and how they develop it. If the book is an edited collection of essays, or chapters by different individuals, reviewers need to give some idea of the overall theme and content, but be free to focus on specific chapters they consider particularly significant or worthwhile. A review should inform the reader about what is happening in the area of academic activity the book addresses; what the state of knowledge is in the subject; and how this new book adds, changes, or breaks new ground in our knowledge of this subject. The review should be fair to the author, convey the content of the book (not chapter by chapter so much as the entire book), include pungent or revealing quotations from the book or notable facts or findings.

It is advisable to include the following components into the review:

  • an introduction to the author, including the author’s title and place of work, and some indication of who the author is (e.g., the renowned authority; a bold young scholar; a frequent critic);
  • a summary of the intended purpose of the book and how it contributes to improving academic life and operations and to the discipline generally;
  • a description of the way the author approaches his or her topic, the rigor of the research and scholarship, the logic of the argument, and the readability of the prose;
  • a comparison with earlier or similar books in the field to place the book in the existing literature;
  • an evaluation of the book’s merits, usefulness, and special contributions, along with shortcomings the reviewer believes are necessary to point out.

Reviewers are expected to establish their authority to write the review, not point out the author’s flaws, but display in a detailed and instructive way their expertise on the subject. It is essential to keep in mind the reader of the review or the audience of the book and focus on what this readership might be looking for. Judgments can be made more convincing by quoting examples from the book. It is also imperative for reviewers to be honest while writing a review and whilst concluding it. TLC encourages the reviewers to acknowledge their work as big responsibility because it can influence a reader’s decision of either choosing or rejecting the book.

Submission Guidelines

Before you proceed to submit your paper, please make sure it meets our requirements